Home अभी-अभी क्या मदरसों की तुलना आरएसएस-संचालित स्कूलों से की जा सकती है ?

क्या मदरसों की तुलना आरएसएस-संचालित स्कूलों से की जा सकती है ?

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राम पुनियानी

दिग्विजय सिंह की ने २३ फरवरी, २०१७ को ट्वीट किया कि ‘मदरसे और सरस्वती शिशु मंदिर, दोनों नफरत फैलाते हैं”। इसपर कई तरह की प्रतिक्रियाएं सामने आयीं हैं। कुछ मुस्लिम संगठनों ने दिग्विजय सिंह पर मदरसों का दानवीकरण करने का आरोप लगाया है तो आरआरएस से जुड़े लोग सरस्वती शिशु मंदिरों के समर्थन में सामने आ गए हैं। उन्होंने शिशु मंदिरों की तुलना, ‘आतंकवाद के अड्डों’ मदरसों से किये जाने की निंदा की है।

पूरी दुनिया में मदरसों के दानवीकरण की प्रक्रिया 9/11, २००१ के बाद शुरू हुई। इसी के बाद अमरीकी मीडिया ने ‘इस्लामिक आतंकवाद’ शब्द गढ़ा। उस दौर में पाकिस्तान के मदरसों में प्रशिक्षित तालिबान और अलकायदा के लड़ाके कई तरह की अवांछित गतिविधियों में संलग्न थे। यह मान लिया गया कि इन चंद मदरसों में दी जाने वाली शिक्षा ही सभी मदरसों में दी जाती है। यह बेबुनियाद है क्योंकि पाकिस्तान के केवल कुछ मदरसों में आतंकवाद को प्रोत्साहन देने वाली शिक्षा दी जाती थी और वे मदरसा शिक्षा व्यवस्था का प्रतिनिधित्व नहीं करते।

भारत में मदरसों का इतिहास काफी पुराना है। वहां मुख्यतः केवल कुरान को रटवा कर उसे पढ़ाया जाता था. इस्लामिक धार्मिक शिक्षा देने और उलेमा को प्रशिक्षित करने के लिए देवबंद और बरेलवी सहित कई मदरसे अस्तित्व में आये। मुसलमानों को धर्मनिरपेक्ष शिक्षा देने का प्रयास करने वालों में सर सैयद अहमद खान प्रमुख थे, जिन्होंने मुसलमानों में आधुनिक, तार्किक और वैज्ञानिक शिक्षा का प्रसार किया। यह दिलचस्प है कि अधिकांश मदरसों के मौलाना, ब्रिटिश सरकार के खिलाफ थे, स्वाधीनता आन्दोलन के समर्थक थे और भारत के विभाजन के घोर विरोधी थे।

आज मुश्किल से २-३ प्रतिशत मुस्लिम बच्चे मदरसों में पढ़ते हैं। इनमें से अधिकांश वे होते हैं जिनके अभिवावक गरीबी के कारण अपने बच्चों को दूसरे स्कूलों में नहीं पढ़ा पाते। अधिकांशतः मदरसे उन क्षेत्रों में हैं जहाँ सामान्य स्कूलों की कमी है। कई मदरसे विद्यार्थियों के रहवास और भोजन की मुफ्त व्यवस्था करते हैं और यह गरीब अभिवावकों के लिए एक बड़ा आकर्षण होता है। अगर वे अपने बच्चों को मदरसों में न भेजें तो उनके बच्चे किसी भी प्रकार की शिक्षा प्राप्त नहीं कर सकेंगे क्योंकि वे उन्हें मुख्यधारा के स्कूलों में भेजने में आर्थिक दृष्टि से सक्षम ही नहीं होते।यद्यपि मदरसे आधुनिक शिक्षा नहीं देते तथापि उनमें से कई ने अंग्रेजी, गणित और अन्य धर्मनिरपेक्ष विषयों को अपने पाठ्यक्रमों में शामिल किया है।

इसके विपरीत, पाकिस्तान के वे कुछ मदरसे, जिनमें अलकायदा और उसके जैसे अन्य संगठनों के लड़ाकों को प्रशिक्षण दिया गया था, अमरीका ने स्थापित करवाए थे ताकि वह शीतयुद्ध समाप्त होने के तुरंत बाद, अफ़ग़ानिस्तान पर काबिज़ हो गयी सोवियत सेनाओं को वहां से खदेड़ने के काम आ सकें. इन मदरसों में इस्लाम के एक विकृत संस्करण को पढ़ाया जाता था, जिसमें असहमति के लिए कोई जगह नहीं थी और जो जिहाद के नाम पर काफिरों की हत्या को उचित ठहराता था। इन मदरसों का पाठ्यक्रम वाशिंगटन में तैयार किया गया था और वे पश्चिम एशिया के कच्चे तेल के स्त्रोतों पर कब्ज़ा करने के अमरीका के अभियान का हिस्सा थे। यह धारणा कि सभी मदरसे, आतंकवाद के अड्डे हैं, दुष्प्रचार के ज़रिये निर्मित की गयी है। कुछ मदरसों, जिनकी भूमिका निश्चित रूप से नकारात्मक थी, को पूरी मदरसा शिक्षा प्रणाली का पर्याय मान लिया गया। दिग्विजय सिंह का ट्वीट, इसी गलत धारणा का नतीजा है. दिग्विजय सिंह ने लिखा, “मदरसों और आरएसएस द्वारा संचालित सरस्वती शिशु मंदिरों में क्या कोई फर्क है? मैं तो नहीं सोचता कि ऐसा है। दोनों ही नफरत फैलाते हैं” । इसके पहले पश्चिम बंगाल के तत्कालीन मुख्यमंत्री बुद्धदेव भट्टाचार्य ने भी मदरसों के सम्बन्ध में नकारात्मक टिपण्णी की थी।

संघ परिवार का लक्ष्य दूसरा है. उसने सरस्वती शिशु मंदिरों सहित अन्य संस्थानों की स्थापना इसलिए की है ताकि हिन्दू राष्ट्रवाद की विश्वदृष्टि का प्रसार हो सके है और हिन्दू राष्ट्र के निर्माण के उसके लक्ष्य की पूर्ति में वे सहायक हो सकें। इन स्कूलों के पाठ्यक्रमों पर अक्सर चर्चा होती रहती है। इन पाठ्यक्रमों में मुस्लिम शासकों का दानवीकरण और हिन्दू राजाओं का महिमामंडन किया जाता है और बताया जाता है कि देश में इस्लाम तलवार की नोंक पर फैलाया गया। इनमें ईसाई मिशनरियों के ‘षड़यंत्र’ की चर्चा होती है और भारत पर पश्चिमी धर्मनिरपेक्षता थोपने के लिए गाँधी-नेहरु को कटघरे में खड़ा किया जाता है। इनके अतिरिक्त, ये पाठ्यक्रम जातिगत और लैंगिक पूर्वाग्रहों से परिपूर्ण हैं और हिटलर और मुसोलिनी के राष्ट्रवाद का गौरव गान करते हैं। आश्चर्य नहीं कि इन स्कूलों से पढ़कर निकलने वाले बच्चे, मुसलमानों और ईसाईयों से नफरत करते हैं और गाँधी-नेहरु को नीची दृष्टि से देखते हैं।

इनके पाठ्यक्रम इतिहास को तोड़मरोड़ कर, धार्मिक अल्पसंख्यकों के प्रति अलगाव का भाव पैदा करते हैं, पौराणिकता को बढ़ावा देते हैं और तार्किक और वैज्ञानिक सोच को कमज़ोर करते हैं। सरस्वती शिशु मंदिरों में बच्चों को यह भी बताया जाता है कि भारत हमेशा से विश्व गुरु रहा है और प्लास्टिक सर्जरी, हवाईजहाजों व स्टेमसेल तकनीकी का हमारे देश में सैकड़ों साल पहले अविष्कार हो चुका था। इन बेबुनियाद तथ्यों को सच की तरह प्रस्तुत किया जाता है और ये धीरे-धीरे समाज की सामूहिक सोच का हिस्सा बन गए हैं। इनसे सम्प्रदायवाद मज़बूत हो रहा है।

साफ़ है कि सरस्वती शिशु मंदिरों में धार्मिक शिक्षा नहीं दी जा रही है बल्कि वे संकीर्ण राष्ट्रवाद के राजनीतिक एजेंडा को लागू कर रहे हैं।

यह ज़रूरी है कि हम गेहूं को भूंसे से अलग करने के लिए पूरी गंभीरता से प्रयास करें। जहाँ यह सच है कि पाकिस्तान स्थित कुछ मदरसों में इस्लाम की कट्टर विवेचना कर विभिन्न समुदायों के बीच वैमनस्य के बीज बोये जाते रहे हैं और यहाँ तक कि अपने से असहमत व्यक्तियों की हत्या तक को औचित्यपूर्ण ठहराया जाता रहा है, परन्तु यह भी सच है कि अधिकांश मदरसे इस्लामिक शिक्षा के केंद्र हैं। इसके विपरीत, सरस्वती शिशु मंदिर, शिक्षा के साथ-साथ हिन्दुत्ववादी विचारधारा का प्रसार भी कर रहे हैं।

मदरसा शिक्षा प्रणाली में बहुत विविधता है। सभी मदरसों को उन मदरसों की श्रेणी में नहीं रखा जा सकता, जिनमें अलकायदा के लड़ाकों को प्रशिक्षित किया जाता था, जैसा कि दिग्विजय सिंह कर रहे हैं। इस तरह के बयानों से पता चलता है कि हमारे राजनेता पश्चिम एशिया में आतंकवाद के जन्म के कारणों और कच्चे तेल के कुओं पर कब्ज़ा करने की अमरीका के लिप्सा से उसके गठजोड़ को समझने के लिए तैयार नहीं हैं। इस अभियान में अमरीका ने इस्लाम को तो केवल एक बहाने के रूप में उपयोग किया था। इस तरह के सामान्यीकरण से अल्पसंख्यकों का दानवीकरण होता है और यह देश के हित में नहीं है।

(राम पुनियानी आईआईटी मुंबई के पूर्व प्रोफ़ेसर और चर्चित समाजविज्ञानी हैं। अंग्रेजी से हिन्दी रूपांतरण अमरीश हरदेनिया ने कियाा ।) 

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