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जानिये कि ‘फ़तवा’ के मायने क्या हैं !

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मुफ़्ती के फ़तवे…

“मुफ़्तियों को शरीयत के आईने में लोगों को राह दिखाने की जो ज़िम्मेदारी मिली थी उसमें धीरे-धीरे राजनीति प्रमुख होती चली गई। चिन्तन(क़ियास) का स्थान रूढिवादी सोच ने ले लिया”

एकात्म ब्रह्मज्ञान
इस्लामी संतों की आध्यात्मिक शृंखला में मुफ़्ती भी आते हैं। हालाँकि मुफ़्ती शब्द सूफ़ी परंपरा के आध्यात्मिक गुरुओं की श्रेणी का नहीं है। आमतौर पर दरवेश, सूफ़ी, कलंदर, फकीर आदि साधुपुरुष जहां इस्लाम के दायरे से कभी बँधे नहीं रहे और इस्लामी धर्मपद्धति शरीयत के हिसाब से नहीं चले इसीलिए इनमें से कई संतों को बेशरा भी कहा गया। इन्होंने जहां एकात्म ब्रह्मज्ञान का प्रचार-प्रसार धर्म की पारम्परिक प्रचलित व्यवस्था से हटकर किया वहीं मुफ़्ती इस्लाम की धार्मिक व्यवस्था का प्रमुख हिस्सा रहे है।

सलाह, मश्वरा, राय
मुफ़्ती वह धर्मशास्त्री है जो कट्टर मुस्लिम धर्मप्राण लोगों की सामाजिक समस्याओं का निराकरण इस्लामी कानून के मद्देनजर प्रश्नोत्तर शैली में करता है और अंत में उसके आधार पर काग़ज़ के पुर्जे़ पर एक फ़तवा जारी करता है जो उस विवाद, मुद्दे या समस्या के संदर्भ में आइंदा भी मिसाल के तौर पर देखा जाता है। फ़तवा fatwa और मुफ़्ती mufti में गहरी रिश्तेदारी है। मुफ़्ती शब्द बना है अरबी के अफ़्ता afta से जिसमें वर्णन करना या जानकारी देना जैसे भाव हैं। यह सामी मूल की इसका मतलब सामान्य कानूनी (शरई) सलाह भी है। इसके मूल में है सेमिटिक धातु प-त-व जिसका अरबी रूप होता है फ़ा ता वा अर्थात و ف ت यानी परामर्श, सलाह, मश्वरा देना।

धर्मसम्मत परामर्श
फ़तवा शब्द के मूल में भी यही धातु है। फ़तवा का मतलब है धार्मिक सलाह, व्यवस्था अथवा निराकरण। फतवा के बहुवचन रूप फतावी या फतावा हैं। मुफ्ती के पास किसी मामले में राय मांगने और फ़तवा जारी करने की पहल इस्तफ़्ता कहलाती है। आमतौर पर लोग फ़तवा का मतलब निर्णय से लगाते हैं मगर ऐसा नहीं है। फ़तवा महज़ सलाह या राय है जिस पर अमल करना ज़रूरी नहीं है।मुफ़्ती से अभिप्राय एक ऐसे प्रमुख धार्मिक व्यक्ति से है जो शरीयत के दायरे में विभिन्न मुद्दों पर लोगों को धर्मसम्मत सलाह देता है।

इल्हाम, आत्मज्ञान
इस्लाम के सुन्नी पंथ के तहत मुफ़्ती का पद बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है। इस्लामी कानून शरीयत के तहत इस्लाम का कोई भी अनुयायी मुफ़्ती से सलाह ले सकता है। मुफ़्ती इस्लामी कानून अर्थात शरीयत की व्याख्या चार प्रमुख दृष्टियों से करते हैं- क़ुरान, हदीस, इज्मा और क़ियास। शरीयत का अर्थ होता है मार्ग, रास्ता। इसकी व्युत्पत्ति शर् से बताई जाती है जिसमें आत्मज्ञान, इल्हाम अथवा दिव्यबोध का भाव है। शरीयत के चार प्रमुख स्रोतों में क़ुरान , हदीस, इज्मा और क़ियास आते हैं। शरीयत में क़ुरान और हदीस को ही सर्वोपरि माना गया है। क़ुरान तो पैगंबर के वचनों का संग्रह है और उसे ख़ुदाई माना जाता है जबकि हदीस में उनके हवाले से कही गई बातें लिखी हैं।

परम्परा और प्रगतिशीलता
विद्वानों का मानना है कि इसमें समय समय पर मिलावट होती रही है। ऐसा हर धर्म में, हर काल में होता रहा है। जब क़ुरान और हदीस की रोशनी में किसी मसले का हल या मार्गदर्शन नहीं मिलता है तब उज्मा ऐ उम्मत अर्थात विद्वानों की मजलिस में बहुमत के आधार पर आम सहमति बनाई जाती है। अगर कोई पेचीदा मामला हो या ऐसी परिस्थिति पर फैसला लेना हो जिसका क़ुरान और हदीस की रोशनी में भी कोई हल न निकल रहा हो तब क़ियास (क़यास) के जरिये अर्थात आत्मज्ञान, अनुमान, स्वविवेक से मुफ़्ती अपनी राय कायम करता है और फ़तवा सुनाता है। प्रगतिशील नज़रिये वाले इस्लामी विद्वान शरीयत के इसी स्रोत में इस्लाम के नवोत्थान और उदारवादी भविष्य का मार्ग देखते हैं।

मुफ़्ती का रुतबा
मुस्लिम आबादी वाले मुल्कों में मुफ़्ती के अलग अलग रूप हैं मसलन अल्बानिया में इसे मिफ्ती, क्रोएशिया में मुफ्तिजा, रोमानिया में मुफ्त्यू, तुर्किक में मुफ्तू कहा जाता है। कई इस्लामी राष्ट्रों में मुफ्ती न्यायाधीश की तरह एक सरकारी पद होता है फर्क़ यही है कि उसके दिए गए फ़तवों को मानने के लिए कोई बाध्य नहीं होता। बीते कुछ वर्षों से भारत में भी मुफ़्तियों के फ़तवे बहुत चर्चित हो रहे हैं। इन पर अमल कोई करे न करे मगर अपनी अनोखी सोच और प्रचारप्रियता के चलते थोक के भाव फ़तवे जारी करनेवाले मुफ़्तियों की वजह से उनके पंथ के प्रति अन्य धर्मों के लोगों में गंभीरता का भाव कम हुआ है।

फ़तवा और सियासत
सूफियों ने तौहिद अर्थात एकेश्वरवाद को अनलहक़ की रोशनी में देखा। निरंतर आत्मज्ञान की राह पकड़ी और ईश्वर, आत्मा, जीव,संसार के बारे में चिंतन करते रहे इसलिए एक ऐसा आध्यात्मिक साम्राज्य खड़ा कर पाए जिसकी बादशाहत किसी के पास नहीं थी। वहीं मुफ़्तियों को शरीयत के आईने में लोगों को राह दिखाने की जो ज़िम्मेदारी मिली थी उसमें धीरे-धीरे राजनीति प्रमुख होती चली गई। चिन्तन (क़ियास) का स्थान रूढिवादी सोच ने ले लिया।

( शब्दों के सफ़र के अन्वेषी और वरिष्ठ पत्रकार अजित वडनेरकर की फ़ेसबुक वॉल से साभार )

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