Home दस्तावेज़ ‘समाजवादी’ आज़ाद ने शिव वर्मा से पढ़वाकर सुना कम्युनिस्ट घोषणापत्र !

‘समाजवादी’ आज़ाद ने शिव वर्मा से पढ़वाकर सुना कम्युनिस्ट घोषणापत्र !

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`कमांडर इन चीफ` चंद्रशेखर आज़ाद के बारे में शिव वर्मा 

 

” लिखने-पढ़ने के मामले में आज़ाद की सीमाएँ थीं। उनके पास कॉलेज या स्कूल का अंग्रेजी का सर्टीफिकेट नहीं था और उनकी शिक्षा हिंदी या मामूली संस्कृत तक ही सीमित थी। लेकिन ज्ञान और बुद्धि का ठेका अंग्रेजी जानने वालों को ही मिला हो, ऐसी बात तो नहीं है। यह सही है कि उस समय तक समाजवाद आदि पर भारत में बहुत थोड़ी पुस्तकें थीं और वे भी केवल अंग्रेजी में ही। आज़ाद स्वयं पढ़कर उन पुस्तकों का लाभ नहीं उठा सकते थे लेकिन इसका यह मतलब नहीं कि आज़ाद उस ज्ञान की जानकारी के प्रति उदासीन थे। सच तो यह है कि केंद्र पर हम लोगों से पढ़ने-लिखने के लिए जितना आग्रह आज़ाद करते थे, उतना और कोई नहीं करता था। वे प्राय: ही किसी ने किसी को पकड़कर उससे सिद्धांत संबंधी अंग्रेजी की पुस्तकें पढ़वाते और हिंदी में उसका अर्थ करवाकर समझने की कोशिश करते। कार्ल मार्क्स का `कम्युनिस्ट घोषणापत्र` पहली बार आदि से अंत तक मैंने आज़ाद को सुनाते समय ही पढ़ा था। (यह पुस्तक बाद में सहारनपुर में मेरे साथ पकड़ी गई थी।)

भगत सिंह और सुखदेव के आ जाने पर सैद्धांतिक प्रश्नों पर खासतौर पर बहस छिड़ जाती थी। हमारा अंतिम उद्देश्य क्या है, देश की आज़ादी से हमारा क्या मतलब है, भावी समाज कैसा होगा, श्रेणीरहित समाज का क्या अर्थ है, आधुनिक समाज के वर्ग संघर्ष में क्रांतिकारियों की क्या भूमिका होनी चाहिए, राजसत्ता क्या है, कांग्रेस किस वर्ग की संस्था है, ईश्वर, धर्म आदि का जन्म कहां से हुआ आदि प्रश्नों पर बहस होती और आज़ाद उसमें खुलकर भाग लेते थे।

ईश्वर है या नहीं, इस पर आज़ाद किसी निश्चित मत पर पहुंच पाए थे, यह कहना कठिन है। ईश्वर की सत्ता से इनकार करने वाले घोर नास्तिक भगत सिंह की दलीलों का विरोध उन्होंने कभी नहीं किया। अपनी ओर से न उन्होंने कभी ईश्वर की वकालत की और न उसके पीछे ही पड़े।
शोषण का अन्त, मानव मात्र की समानता की बात और श्रेणी रहित समाज की कल्पना आदि समाजवाद की बातों में उन्हें मुग्ध-सा कर लिया था। और समाजवाद की जिन बातों को जिस हद तक वे समझ पाए थे, उतने को ही आज़ादी के ध्येय के साथ जीवन के सम्बल के रूप में उन्होंने पर्याप्त मान लिया था। वैज्ञानिक समाजवाद की बारीकियों को समझे बगैर भी वे अपने आपको समाजवादी कहने में गौरव अनुभव करने लगे थे। यह बात आज़ाद ही नहीं, उस समय हम सब लागू थी। उस समय तक भगत सिंह और सुखदेव को छोड़ और किसी ने न तो समाजवाद पर अधिक पढ़ा ही था और न मनन ही किया था। भगत सिंह और सुखदेव का ज्ञान भी हमारी तुलना में ही अधिक था। वैसे समाजवादी सिद्धन्त के हर पहलू को पूरे तौर पर वे भी नहीं समझ पाए थे। यह काम तो हमारे पकड़े जाने के बाद लाहौर जेल में सम्पन्न हुआ। भगत सिंह की महानता इसमें थी कि वे अपने समय के दूसरे लोगों के मुकाबले राजनीतिक तथा सैद्धान्तिक सूझबूझ में काफी आगे थे।
आज़ाद का समाजवाद की ओर आकर्षित होने का ऐक और भी कारण था। आज़ाद का जन्म एक बहुत ही निर्धन परिवार में हुआ था और अभाव की चुभन को व्यक्तिगत जीवन में उन्होंने अनुभव भी किया था। बचपन में भावरा तथा उनके इर्द-गिर्द के आदिवासियों और किसानों के जीवन को भी वे काफी नजदीक से देख चुके थे। बनारस जाने से पहले कुछ दिन बंबई में उन्हें मजदूरों के बीच रहने का अवसर मिला था। इसीलिए, जैसा कि वैशम्पायन ने लिखा है कि किसानों तथा मजदूरों के राज्य की जब वे चर्चा करते तो उसमें उनकी अनुभूति की स्पष्ट झलक दिखाई देती थी।”

 

(शिव वर्मा के लेख `तिनकी अब कान कहानी सुनो करें` लेख से)

चंद्रशेखर आजा़द `हिंदुस्तान सोशलिस्ट रिपब्लिकन आर्मी` के कमांडर इन चीफ थे। इस दल के सदस्य शिव वर्मा को लाहौर षडयंत्र केस में उम्रकैद की सजा हुई थी।

प्रस्तुति-धीरेश सैनी

 

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